上海律师杨春宝主持的法律专业网站群: 法律桥 :: 会见律师网 :: 公司投资律师 :: 创业与法律 :: 律师博客 :: 法律论坛 :: Law Bridge
聘请律师: 法律顾问 :: 公司法律师 :: 投资律师 :: 房地产律师 :: 知识产权律师 :: 电信网络律师 :: 法律服务热线:13901826830(杨春宝律师)
主持律师 会见公司投资律师 会见房地产律师
联盟律师 会见知识产权律师 会见电信网络律师
最新文章
·Conflict Between Free Trade and 
·Application of Escrow(ESCROW的应
推荐文章
·Conflict Between Free Trade and 
·Application of Escrow(ESCROW的应
最热文章
·Conflict Between Free Trade and 
·Application of Escrow(ESCROW的应
 
相关文章
·Conflict Between Free Trade and 
·Application of Escrow(ESCROW的应
相关专题
·湖南郴州李毅律师
·山东济南邹维高律师
·山东潍坊张吉全律师
·江西吉安李海军律师
·广东广州江秀峰律师
·上海马辉律师
您的位置:会见律师网>>主持律师>>主持律师作品集>>英文论文>>民商法论文>>文章内容
 
Conflict Between Free Trade and Environment Protection(论自由贸易与环境保护的冲突)(2000)

作者:杨春宝、陈俊、林茂、徐劲科 来自:法律桥 时间:2005-1-3 10:52:28

您是本文第  位阅读者  【字体:放大 正常 缩小




Conclusion:

Whether there is conflict or not between free trade and environmental protection in theory, in practice there is controversy between the two issues which are both important to us. However, WTO is a trade organization anyway, so environmentalists are concerned with and disappointed to the approach of WTO existing system. Hence, more and more countries prefer eco-label program, especially voluntary scheme to protect environment. The idea behind is to encourage more and more people to care about environmental protection. If more and more consumers are concerned with the environment, we can have more and more clean water, clean air, clean everything. We have only one earth, so what we do tomorrow? Where we go tomorrow? Let’s do something!----“Heal the world!”(song by Michael Jackson)


Footnotes:

1 <The Marrakesh Agreement establishing the World Trade orgnization> was concluded on 15 April 1994, in Marrakesh, and entered into force on 1 January 1995, see http://www.wto.org

2 It was set up by the 1994 Ministerial Decision on Trade and Environment. It came into being with the WTO on 1 January 1995. See http://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/envir_e/issu1_e.htm

3 The theory of the comparative advantages was established by David Ricardo in his book The Principles of Political Economy published in 1817. It continues to form the basis of conventional international trade theory today.

4 Phillip Evans & James Walsh, The EIU Guide to the New GATT 128 (1994)

5 Aug.22 2000, Hua Sheng Bao, also see http://www.chinaonline.com/topstories/000831/1/C00082202.asp

6 North American Free Trade Agreement

7 WTO Agreement, Marrakesh, 15 April 1994, see http://www.wto.org

8 Article XX of GATT:
Subject to the requirement that such measure are not applied in a manner which would constitute a means of arbitrary or unjustifiable discrimination between countries where the same conditions prevail, or a disguised restriction on international trade, nothing in this Agreement shall be construed to prevent the adoption or enforcement by any contracting party of measures:

(b) necessary to protect human, animal or plant life or health;

(g) relating to the conservation of exhaustible natural resources if such measures are made effective in conjunction with restrictions on domestic production or consumption;

9 Panel Report: United States--Restrictions on Imports of Tuna, Aug 16, 1991 30 I.L.M. 1598 (1992)

10 Janect McDonald, Trade and the Environment: Greening the GATT: Harmonizing Free Trade and Environmental Protection in the New World Order, 23. ENVTL.L. 402,438 (1992)

11 WTO, Panel Report: United States--Standard for Reformulated and Conventional Gasoline, Jan 29, 1996, 35 I.L.M 274 (1996)

12 WTO, Appellate Body Report: United States--Standard for Reformulated and Conventional Gasoline, Jan 29, 1996, 35 I.L.M 603 (1996)

13 WTO Panel Report: United States--Import Prohibition of Certain Shrimp and Shrimp Products 37 I.LM 832 (1998)

14 WTO, Appellate Body Report: United States--Import Prohibition of Certain Shrimp and Shrimp Products 38 I.L.M 118 (1998)

15 In response to the ruling the U.S. has proposed to alter the way it implements the Act but it has not changed the Act itself.

16 see supra note 14 para 185

17 For example, in the shrimp case, the U.S. would have had to engage in bilateral or multilateral negotiation with shrimp harvesting countries. Only if these had proven to be unsuccessful could the U.S. have introduced unilateral measures. These unilateral measures would have needed to be designed such that differing conditions in different countries are taken into account, that all countries are granted the same “phase-in” periods, that the U.S. undertakes the same effort in transferring sea turtle safe-harvesting technology to all relevant parties, and that the certification process is transparent and allows affected countries to be heard and to appeal against non-certification. see supra note 14 para 163-180

18 see http://www.wto.org/english/tratop_e/envir_e/environment.pdf

19 Embracing Greenery, Economist, Oct.9, 1999, at 89-90

20 see Steve Charnovitz: World Trade and the Environment: A Review of the New WTO Report, Georgetown International Environmental Law Review, Winter, 2000

21 Craig A.A.Dixon: Environmental survey of WTO dispute panel resolution panel decision since 1995:”Trade at all costs?”, William and Mary Environmental Law and Policy Review, Winter 2000

22 See Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), Environmental labelling in OECD Countries 43 (1991)

23 id



[首页]    [上一页]    [下一页]    [末页]    
发送给好友】【刷新本页】【打印本页】【关闭窗口】【本页顶部

  发表评论须知:
  • 请注意文明用语,请勿人身攻击。
  • 请尊重网上道德,遵守中华人民共和国各项相关法律法规。
  • 您应当对因您的行为而直接或间接导致的民事或刑事法律责任负责。
  • 本站有权在网站内转载或引用您的评论。
  • 网站管理员有权删除违反上述提示的评论。
  • 法律咨询请勿在此提出,咨询请去律师论坛
  • 参与本评论即表明您已经阅读并接受上述条款。
会员名称:
匿名用户 ·注册用户·忘记密码?
密码:
评论内容:
(最多300个字符)
  查看评论

本站声明:本站所载之法律论文、法律评论、案例、法律咨询等,除非另有注明,著作权人均为站长杨春宝律师本人。欢迎其他网站链接,但是,未经站长书面许可,不得擅自摘编、转载。引用及经许可转载时均应注明出处“会见律师网”,并链接本站。本站网址:http://www.meetlawyer.com/.

本站所有内容(包括法律咨询)仅供参考,不构成法律意见,站长不对资料的完整性和时效性负责。您在处理具体法律事务时,请洽询有资质的律师。本站将努力为广大网友提供更好的服务,但不对本站提供的任何免费服务作出正式的承诺。本站所载投稿文章,其言论不代表本站观点,如需使用,请与原作者联系,版权归原作者所有。